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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-8

Systematic review and meta-analysis of otitis media in Iran: Prevalence, etiology, antibiotic susceptibility, and complications

1 Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
2 Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
3 Department of Nursing, Basic Sciences Faculty, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran
4 Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Medical-Surgical, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani
Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/indianjotol.INDIANJOTOL_5_18z

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Otitis media (OM) is a relatively common infectious disease, and its chronic form may lead to complications such as hearing impairment. This study aims to determine the prevalence, etiology, antibiotic susceptibility, and complications of OM in Iran through meta-analysis. English language databases, including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Persian language databases, including SID, Magiran, Iranmedex, Medlib, as well as the Google Scholar search engine, were searched from 1994 to 2017, using the Mesh keywords: Otitis media, Middle ear, Causality, Etiology, and Iran. The heterogeneity assessment of the studies was done using Q-Cochran test and I2 index. Considering the high heterogeneity of the studies, the random effects model was used to estimate the point prevalence with 95% confidence interval. Data were analyzed using STATA version 11.1 software. Fifty-one articles with a sample size of 10,675 were reviewed in this study, the most common types of OM involvement were right otitis (51% [95% confidence interval (CI): 33–68]), left otitis (44% [95% CI: 36–52]), and bilateral otitis (33% [95% CI: 7–59]). The most common bacterial etiologies involved in OM were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26% [CI 95%: 17–35]), Proteus (21% [95% CI: 0%–45%]), and Staphylococcus (20% [95% CI: 0–42]). The fungal etiology of OM was estimated to be 22% (95% CI: 4–40). The most common OM pathologies were ossicular changes (56%[95% CI, 27–85]), granulation (49% [95% CI: 18–80]), cholesteatoma (32% [95% CI: 13–51]), tympanosclerosis (17% [95% CI: 10–23]), and cholesterol granuloma (11% [95% CI: 0–26]). The results of this meta-analysis provide useful information on the epidemiology of OM in Iran to otorhinologists and health policymakers.

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