|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 168-170
Beck depression Inventory-II in hearing impaired elderly patients: A presbycusis study
Mohammad Hossein Nilforoush1, Mahsa Sepehrnejad1, Zahra Habibi2
1 Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Communication Disorders Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||31-Aug-2017|
Communication Disorders Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background and Objective: Hearing impairment is one of the most common sensory deficits in human communities. Recent studies have shown that presbycusis happens earlier than before. Hearing loss due to the aging process, or presbycusis, can cause inability to interpret sounds in speech, decreased ability to communicate and withdrew from society. Therefore these factors may lead to psychological problems such as depression. Since there are few studies evaluating the side effects of presbycusis in Iran, we started the study of depression in presbycusis clients referred to the audiology clinics of Isfahan University of medical science, Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between demographic characteristics and depression was determined. In order to collect information and evaluate depression, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was utilized and conducted on 35 cases. Results: Results indicated that 8.6fcr% had minimal depression, 14.3% with mild, 20.0% moderate depression and 57.1% had severe depression. No significant correlation between age, gender and depression was achieved. Conclusion: Using depression questionnaire such as BDI-II during aural rehabilitation process could be valuable. More complications were found in acceptance of hearing aids in elderly people with depression. Psychological treatment can be suitable while audiological management was accomplished simultaneously for this group.
Keywords: Beck Depression Inventory-II, depression, elderly, presbycusis
|How to cite this article:|
Nilforoush MH, Sepehrnejad M, Habibi Z. Beck depression Inventory-II in hearing impaired elderly patients: A presbycusis study. Indian J Otol 2017;23:168-70
|How to cite this URL:|
Nilforoush MH, Sepehrnejad M, Habibi Z. Beck depression Inventory-II in hearing impaired elderly patients: A presbycusis study. Indian J Otol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Jul 30];23:168-70. Available from: https://www.indianjotol.org/text.asp?2017/23/3/168/213873
| Introduction|| |
Hearing impairment has affected more than 250 million people around the world. Aging progress and changes associated with that can affect the auditory system and cause presbycusis  which is the most common sensory impairment.
According to the definitions given, presbycusis is a hearing loss caused by aging. Many studies have shown that presbycusis in elderly (60 years old or over) is very common  that it is also the most prevalent impairment. Furthermore, in the US health system, presbycusis is the third medical problem after hypertension and arthritis in elderly.
Based on some studies' results, it is estimated that the prevalence of hearing loss in 65 years old and over is 25%–40%, 75 years old and over is 40%–66%, and in 85 years and over is 80%–90%. Recent studies demonstrate that presbycusis happens more often and also earlier than before. However, millions of people do not care about their hearing loss.,
Hearing loss can cause inability to interpret sounds in speech and decreased ability to communicate and withdrew from the society. Therefore, these factors may lead to psychological problems such as depression. Since there are few studies evaluating the side effects of presbycusis, we started the study of depression in presbycusis clients referred to the audiology clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study included 35 clients (19 men and 16 women) who were over 60 years old; a cross-sectional study was performed. To assess depression, the validated questionnaire Beck Depression Inventory-II was utilized which is validated and reliable in Iran, along with that demographic data were also collected. The BDI-II is the most recent version of a widely used self-report measure of depression severity. Furthermore, this test represents a successful acknowledged standard in the measurement of depressed mood. It takes 5–10 min to fill out this questionnaire. The BDI-II is scored by summing the highest ratings for each of the 21 questions. Each question is rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 0 to 3, and total scores can range from 0 to 63. Score results are divided into four categories including 0–13 to indicate minimal or no depression; 14–19, mild depression; 20–28, moderate depression; and 29–63, severe depression.
This study was conducted in three audiology clinics affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Inclusion criteria included the presence of presbycusis (sensorineural hearing loss), age over 60 years, and the absence of underlying diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, according to the individuals' statement. There was no force to fill out the questionnaire and clients could stop testing if they were willing to.
After presbycusis confirmation by audiometry tests such as pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry, a written informed consent to cooperate was given from each client; afterward the questionnaire was given to them. Then, according to the instructions of the questionnaire, the score of each individual was determined, and eventually, all the data were analyzed statistically by SPSS 18 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA), and with Spearman correlation, ANOVA, and Pearson methods, correlation between the variables of interest was measured.
| Results|| |
A range of mild-to-severe hearing loss in those who surveyed was observed. The average age of these clients was nearly 68 years. Results indicated that 8.6% had minimal depression, 14.3% with mild depression, 20.0% had moderate depression, and 57.1% had severe depression [Table 1].
The results showed that there is no significant relationship between the age and sex of clients with depression. However, a direct relationship between the presbycusis clients' hearing loss level and depression was observed (P < 0.05) [Table 2].
|Table 2: The relationship between age, sex and hearing loss level in subjects with their depression score|
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However, there was a direct correlation between hearing loss and depression in clients.
The survey also found that most presbycusis elderly have severe depression [Table 3].
|Table 3: Classification of depressed clients according to their hearing loss level|
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| Discussion|| |
According to the WHO, it is estimated that there will be 1.2 billion people over 60 years of age worldwide. In addition, 500 individuals of this population will suffer from significant presbycusis. Depression can affect people 60 years and above, especially in the elderly who have clinical problems. As it can be seen, there is a high percentage of depression among the elderly with presbycusis and in general, depression in the elderly is the second most common psychological disorder., Furthermore, based on the results of Sajjadi et al.'s  study in Iran, depression among Iranian elderly was 57.58%. According to research results of Majdi et al.'s study, prevalence of depression in the Iranian elderly population was 23.5%. The depression study conducted on elderly people in the city of Isfahan by Manzouri et al. indicated a 63.7% depression prevalence in the studied population which includes 40.7% suffered from moderate depression and 23% suffered from severe depression. Likewise, our results indicate that depression in the elderly with hearing loss was 91.4% including 14.3% mild depression, 20.0% suffered from moderate depression, and 57.1% had severe depression.
| Conclusion|| |
Due to the high prevalence of depression in the elderly, especially in elderly with hearing loss, it calls for more attention to psychological disorders of these people. These elderlies would have additional difficulties in acceptance and suitable use of their hearing aids; therefore, the psychological and psychiatric treatment simultaneously can play an important role in rehabilitation success. Using depression questionnaire such as BDI-II during aural rehabilitation process can be valuable. This study and other researches in the field of the relationship between hearing loss and depression indicate a substantial relationship between audiology, psychology, and psychiatry. Furthermore, a need for further cooperation in these fields to improve the quality of life as well as the health enhancement is felt.
The authors would like to thank audiology clinics personnel and also clients that helped and participated in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]