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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 54-57

Etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma

Department of ENT, Mumbai Port Trust Hospital, Wadala (E), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Sunita Chhapola
Flat no. 4, Dhanvantari, Mumbai Port Trust Hospital Campus, Wadala (E), Mumbai - 400037, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-7749.91036

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The etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma has undergone numerous changes over the past 150 years. However, certain facts stand out with clarity. The presence of cytokeratins in acquired cholesteatoma, which are akin to those found in the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal, shows that these are probably the site of origin of acquired cholesteatoma. The cholesteatoma sac also shows its greatest growth at its tympanic membrane attachment into the middle ear. Implantations of squamous epithelium due to trauma or surgery could be another originating factor. The basic pathology is the formation of papillary cones from the tympanic membrane or external auditory canal, which progress from microcholesteatoma to frank cholesteatoma with keratin collections. There is an altered matrix metalloproteinase pathway. Tumor necrosis factor activation with altered wound healing process contributes to the collateral destruction of bone. Trisomy and aneuploidy of chromosome 8 predispose to cholesteatoma formation in affected individuals. In this article, we present the etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma as it stands today.

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