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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 241-243

Risk factors and identifiable causes of hearing impairment among pediatric age group in Kaduna, Nigeria

National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abdullahi Musa Kirfi
National Ear Care Center, P.M.B 2438, Kaduna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/indianjotol.INDIANJOTOL_68_17

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Background: Most of the cases of pediatric hearing loss are avoidable through primary prevention. This study aims to identify the common risk factors/identifiable causes and type of hearing loss among the pediatric age group in the study location. Methods: A retrospective study of pediatric patients diagnosed with hearing loss. The clinical records of these patients seen at the study center from 2009 to 2012 were reviewed. Demography, histories of risk factors, and type of hearing loss were obtained from the record. The data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 16. Results: Three hundred and twenty-one (10.33%) children were diagnosed with hearing loss with a male-to-female ratio 1.8:1. Average age at diagnosis was 2.65 and 3.35 years for bilateral and unilateral hearing losses, respectively, bilateral hearing loss, 304 (94.70%), and unilateral hearing loss, 17 (5.29%). Furthermore, 235 (73.20%) children had predisposing risk factors while 86 (26.79%) had no identifiable risk factor. The most common risk factor was febrile illness and its treatment in 163 (50.7%), followed by middle ear infections in 29 (9.03%). A family history of hearing loss, prematurity, or complicated perinatal course was found in 17 (5.29%) patients. Seven (2.18%) cases had sickle cell disease. Sensorineural hearing loss was observed in 228 (71.0%) on the right ear and 222 (69.2%) on the left ear while conductive hearing loss accounted for 21 (6.54%) and 25 (7.78%), respectively, while mixed hearing loss was 9 (3.1%). Conclusion: Hearing loss constitutes about 10.33% of all pediatric ear, nose, and throat diseases within the period under review. There were more males than females. Febrile illnesses and their treatment are the most common risk factors. The most common cause of these fevers was meningitis, measles, malaria, mumps, and sepsis. Sensorineural hearing loss is also the most common type of hearing loss.

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