Home Ahead of print Instructions Contacts
About us Current issue Submit article Advertise  
Editorial board Archives Subscribe Login   


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 241-243

Risk factors and identifiable causes of hearing impairment among pediatric age group in Kaduna, Nigeria


National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication2-May-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abdullahi Musa Kirfi
National Ear Care Center, P.M.B 2438, Kaduna
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/indianjotol.INDIANJOTOL_68_17

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Most of the cases of pediatric hearing loss are avoidable through primary prevention. This study aims to identify the common risk factors/identifiable causes and type of hearing loss among the pediatric age group in the study location. Methods: A retrospective study of pediatric patients diagnosed with hearing loss. The clinical records of these patients seen at the study center from 2009 to 2012 were reviewed. Demography, histories of risk factors, and type of hearing loss were obtained from the record. The data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 16. Results: Three hundred and twenty-one (10.33%) children were diagnosed with hearing loss with a male-to-female ratio 1.8:1. Average age at diagnosis was 2.65 and 3.35 years for bilateral and unilateral hearing losses, respectively, bilateral hearing loss, 304 (94.70%), and unilateral hearing loss, 17 (5.29%). Furthermore, 235 (73.20%) children had predisposing risk factors while 86 (26.79%) had no identifiable risk factor. The most common risk factor was febrile illness and its treatment in 163 (50.7%), followed by middle ear infections in 29 (9.03%). A family history of hearing loss, prematurity, or complicated perinatal course was found in 17 (5.29%) patients. Seven (2.18%) cases had sickle cell disease. Sensorineural hearing loss was observed in 228 (71.0%) on the right ear and 222 (69.2%) on the left ear while conductive hearing loss accounted for 21 (6.54%) and 25 (7.78%), respectively, while mixed hearing loss was 9 (3.1%). Conclusion: Hearing loss constitutes about 10.33% of all pediatric ear, nose, and throat diseases within the period under review. There were more males than females. Febrile illnesses and their treatment are the most common risk factors. The most common cause of these fevers was meningitis, measles, malaria, mumps, and sepsis. Sensorineural hearing loss is also the most common type of hearing loss.

Keywords: Hearing loss, identifiable causes, Kaduna, pediatric, risk factors


How to cite this article:
Samdi MT, Kirfi AM, Grema US, Bemu AN. Risk factors and identifiable causes of hearing impairment among pediatric age group in Kaduna, Nigeria. Indian J Otol 2017;23:241-3

How to cite this URL:
Samdi MT, Kirfi AM, Grema US, Bemu AN. Risk factors and identifiable causes of hearing impairment among pediatric age group in Kaduna, Nigeria. Indian J Otol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 14];23:241-3. Available from: http://www.indianjotol.org/text.asp?2017/23/4/241/231645




  Introduction Top


The World Health Organization reported that about 360 million (328 million adults and 32 million children) people worldwide have disabling hearing loss.[1]

Hearing loss in children may be inherited, caused by maternal rubella or complications at birth, certain infectious diseases such as meningitis, measles, chronic ear infections, use of ototoxic drugs, and exposure to excessive noise. Most of the cases of hearing loss are avoidable through primary prevention.[1]

A study in schoolchildren in Nigeria showed that out of 1500 pupils, 35 (2.3%) had chronic suppurative otitis media and 46.9% had associated hearing loss in one or both ears.[2] Permanent hearing loss can occur at any age, but about 25% of the current burden is of childhood onset. Annually, up to 6/1000 live-born infants or 798,000 babies worldwide suffer permanent hearing loss at birth or within the neonatal period, and at least 90% of them are in developing countries.[3] Primary prevention through immunization, genetic counseling, and improved antenatal and perinatal care may help to address some environmental causes, such as birth trauma, infection, and neonatal jaundice requiring exchange blood transfusion but has a limited impact on genetic or hereditary etiologies, such as connexin 26, Pendred, and Usher syndromes.[4] There is, therefore, a need to conduct this study with focus on identifying risk factors and causes of hearing impairment among children in Kaduna, Nigeria.


  Methods Top


The clinical records of patients, aged 0–15 years seen with hearing loss at the outpatient clinic of the study center from 2009 to 2012, were retrieved. Data on age, sex, histories of risk factors, causes, and type of hearing loss were extracted. The data collected were analyzed using the SPSS version 16 (IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences Chicago Illinois USA).


  Results Top


Out of 3105 pediatric cases aged 0–15 years seen at the outpatient clinic of the study center, 321 were diagnosed with hearing loss representing 10.33% of all diseases within the same period. There were 206 (64.2%) males and 115 (35.8%) females in a ratio of 1.8:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 2.61 years for the bilateral hearing loss and 3.35 years for unilateral hearing loss. Bilateral hearing loss was observed in 304 (94.70%) compared to 17 (5.29%) unilateral hearing loss. Also observed was that 235 (73.20%) had identifiable risk factor for hearing loss while those without obvious risk or probable cause accounted for 86 (26.79%).

The most common risk factor of hearing loss in these patients was febrile illnesses and their treatments 163 (50.78%). The causes of these febrile illnesses identified were measles, meningitis, mumps, malaria, and sepsis 104 (32.40%). A family history of hearing loss, prematurity, or complicated perinatal course was found in 17 (5.29%) patients. Seven (2.18%) cases had sickle cell disease. Details of the results are as depicted in [Table 1].
Table 1: Risk factors and causes associated with hearing loss

Click here to view


Middle ear infection is the second most common risk factor observed in this study which accounted for 29 (9.03%). Sensorineural hearing loss was observed in 228 (71.03%) on the right ear and 222 (69.20%) on the left ear while conductive hearing loss accounted for 21 (6.54%) and 25 (7.78%), respectively. Mixed hearing loss was 9 (2.80%) involving both ears.


  Discussion Top


Out of the 321 cases of hearing loss studied, there were 206 (64.2%) males and 115 (35.8%) females in a ratio of 1.8:1. The etiology (febrile illness) was common to both sexes. A study by Cremer et al.[5] who studied 162 deaf children found sex difference to be related to the degree of hearing loss and the etiology of their deafness.[5]

The mean age at diagnosis was 2.61 years for the bilateral hearing loss and 3.35 years for unilateral hearing loss. This shows that bilateral hearing losses are picked earlier by parents and caregivers compared to unilateral. Similar result was reported by Billings et al.[6] with the findings of mean age at diagnosis as 3.02 years for the bilateral hearing loss and 3.97 years for unilateral hearing losses.[6]

A family history of hearing loss, prematurity, or complicated perinatal course was found in 17 (5.29%) patients. Different finding was reported by Billings et al.[6] where they observed family history of sensorineural hearing loss or prematurity and/or complicated perinatal course in 28.6% of patients.[6]

The most common risk factor of hearing loss in these patients was febrile illness and its treatments with possibly ototoxic drugs, 163 (50%). The causes of those febrile illnesses identified were measles, meningitis, mumps, malaria, and sepsis, 104 (32.40%). This finding is in keeping with persistence of causes of hearing loss reported by Kalsotra et al.[7]

Middle ear infection is the second most common risk factor observed in this study to account for 29 (9.03%). Yamamah et al.[8] in their study of middle ear diseases in 456 school pupils found 162 to have middle ear disease and (18%) with hearing loss.[8]

Seven (2.18%) cases had sickle cell disease. Mgbor and Emodi [9] in Southeastern Nigeria reported almost twice the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss, 13.4%, among sickle cell disease patients compared to control group was 6.2%.[9]

Sensorineural hearing loss was observed in 228 (71.02%) on the right ear and 222 (69.2%) on the left ear while conductive hearing loss accounted for 6.8% and 8.1%, respectively; 3.1% had mixed hearing loss involving both ears. Kodiya et al.[10] in 2012 reported the most common type of hearing loss as sensorineural, which was seen in 78.9% of patients studied; conductive hearing loss was seen in 17.7% and mixed in 3.4% of the studied patients.[10]


  Conclusion Top


Hearing loss constitutes 10.33% of all pediatric ear, nose, and throat diseases within the period under review. More males were affected compared to females. Febrile illnesses and their treatment is the most common risk factor. The most common causes of these fevers were meningitis, measles, malaria, mumps, and sepsis. Sensorineural hearing loss is also the most common type of hearing loss.

Acknowledgment

We wish to acknowledge the efforts of the head of department and medical record staff of the National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna, for extracting the case notes.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
WHO|Deafness and Hearing Loss. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en/1/8/2014. [Last accessed on 2016 Jul 25].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Olatoke F, Ologe FE, Nwawolo CC, Saka MJ. The prevalence of hearing loss among schoolchildren with chronic suppurative otitis media in Nigeria, and its effect on academic performance. Ear Nose Throat J 2008;87:E19.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Olusanya BO, Newton VE. Global burden of childhood hearing impairment and disease control priorities for developing countries. Lancet 2007;369:1314-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Olusanya BO, Wirz SL, Luxon LM. Community-based infant hearing screening for early detection of permanent hearing loss in Lagos, Nigeria: A cross-sectional study. Bull World Health Organ 2008;86:956-63.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.
Cremers CW, van Rijn PM, Huygen PL. The sex-ratio in childhood deafness, an analysis of the male predominance. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1994;30:105-10.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Billings KR, Kenna MA. Causes of pediatric sensorineural hearing loss: Yesterday and today. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:517-21.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.
Kalsotra P, Kumar S, Gosh P, Mishra NK, Verma IC. A study of congenital and early acquired impairment of hearing. JK Sci J Med Educ Res 2002;4:138-43.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Yamamah G, Mabrouk A, Ghorab E, Ahmady M, Abdulsalam H. Middle ear and hearing disorders of schoolchildren aged 7-10 years in South Sinai, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J 2012;18:255-60.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.
Mgbor N, Emodi I. Sensorineural hearing loss in Nigerian children with sickle cell disease. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2004;68:1413-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.
Kodiya AM, Afolabi OA, Ahmad BM. The burden of hearing loss in Kaduna, Nigeria: A 4-year study at the National Ear Care Centre. Ear Nose Throat J 2012;91:156-63.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Hearing threshold of deaf pupils in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna, Nigeria: A cross-sectional survey
AbdullahiMusa Kirfi,MusaThomas Samdi,AbubakarDanjuma Salisu,MohammedBello Fufore
Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2019; 26(3): 164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed943    
    Printed11    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded85    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal