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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 100-104

Traumatic tympanic membrane perforation: An overview

1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, SKIMS Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, SKIMS Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Asef Wani
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, SKIMS Medical College and Hospital, Bemina, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-7749.182276

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the various etiologies of traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations; their clinical presentation, observation and establish masterly inactivity as the main modality of management. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed on 350 cases of traumatic TM perforation in the Department of ENT, SKIMS Medical College, Srinagar from January 2010 to December 2014. Results: A total of 350 patients with the traumatic TM. Perforation was enrolled for this study. The group consisted of 231 male and 119 female patients. It affects all age groups with the highest incidence among middle age group. The right ear was involved in 94 (26.85%) patients, the left ear in 249 (71.14%) patients and bilateral ear involvement was seen in 7 (2%) patients. The type of trauma included compression injury in 243 (64.42%) patients, instrumental injury in 88 (25.14%) patients, and blast injury in 19 (5.42%) patients. Tinnitus was the most common complaint, followed by aural fullness, impaired hearing, otalgia, bleeding from ear and vertigo. 217 (62%) patients presented with conductive hearing loss in the range of 20–35 dB, 77 (22%) patients with <20 dB, 28 (8%) patients presented with >35 dB hearing loss, and 28 (8%) patients presented with no air-bone gap. Grade I perforation (<25% TM involvement) was seen in 91 (26%) patients, Grade II perforation (25–50% TM involvement) was seen in 221 (63.14%) patient, and Grade III perforation (>50% TM involvement) was present in 38 (10.90%) patients. Complete healing was observed within 2–6 weeks in 172 (49.10%) patients and within 7–9 weeks in 112 (32.20%) patients. 35 (10%) patients showed complete healing within 10–12 weeks. The minimum time taken to heal was 21 days and maximum time 72 days. Complete healing was observed in 319 (91.10%) patients. The intervention was only performed when spontaneous healing failed to occur after observing the patients for 1 week and included tympanoplasty in 8 (2.30%) patients, trichloroacetic acid cauterization in 14 (4%) patients. Residual perforation was observed in 9 (2.5%) patients. Conclusion: In our experience, traumatic TM perforation is still very common. Slap, instrumentation, road traffic accident, and blast injuries are common etiologies seen. It affects all age groups. Tinnitus and hearing loss are commonest symptoms. The masterly inactivity should be religiously followed and unnecessary surgical intervention should be discouraged.

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